Logic Smart: Deductive Reasoning

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Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle, who is considered the father of deductive reasoning, wrote the following classic example:

  • All men are mortal.
  • Socrates is a man.
  • Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

In Aristotle’s example, sometimes referred to as a syllogism, the premises of the argument that all men are mortal, and that Socrates is a man are self-evidently true. Because the premises establish that Socrates is an individual in a group whose members are all mortal, the inescapable conclusion is that Socrates must likewise be mortal.

The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another.

Vocabulary:

  • Syllogism: An instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn (whether validly or not) from two given or assumed propositions.
  • Hypothesis: A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
  • Statement: A definite or clear expression of something in speech or writing.
  • Premises: A previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion.

Recommendations:

Write different syllogisms in English to practice logic and language.

Questionnaire:

  • Which example doesn’t fit as a logic syllogism? Write one down.

Welcome to this activity created by Junior Advisor Ms. Michelle Mejido from Narvarte Branch. Take note of all the pink words, read the text, watch the video and answer the question in the comment section below.

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