Chechen Wars

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In 1991, Chechnya declared independence and was named the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. According to some sources, from 1991 to 1994, tens of thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity (mostly Russians, Ukrainians and Armenians) left the republic amidst reports of violence and discrimination against the non-Chechen population.

The First Chechen War was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996. After the initial campaign of 1994–1995, Russian federal forces attempted to seize control of the mountainous area of Chechnya but were set back by Chechen guerrilla warfare and raids on the flatlands despite Russia’s overwhelming advantages in firepower, weaponry, artillery, combat vehicles, etc. The almost universal opposition of the Russian public to the conflict led Boris Yeltsin’s government to declare a ceasefire with the Chechens in 1996 and sign a peace treaty a year later.

On 9 August 1999, Islamist fighters from Chechnya infiltrated Russia’s Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state. On 1 October, Russian troops entered Chechnya. The campaign ended the independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and restored Russian federal control over the territory. During the initial campaign, Russian military and pro-Russian Chechen paramilitary forces faced Chechen separatists in open combat, and sieged the city of Grozny from late 1999 until February 2000. Russia established direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000; some Chechen separatists also carried out attacks against civilians in Russia. On 15 April 2009, the government operation in Chechnya was officially over.

Source.

Vocabulary:

  • Amidst: In the middle of/ between.
  • Warfare: Activities involved in war or conflict.
  • Raids: A rapid surprise attack on an enemy.
  • Despite: Without being affected by something or someone.
  • Seize: Take hold of something suddenly and forcibly.
  • Siege: A military operation in which enemy forces surround a town or building, cutting off essential supplies, with the objective of making those inside to surrender.

Questionnaire:

  • Who do you think was right, Chechnya or Russia?

Session 3

Welcome to this activity created by Junior Advisor Ms. Aleen Luna from Polanco Branch. Take note of all the pink words, read the text, watch the video and answer the question in the comment section below.

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