Astrakhan Kremlin

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The Astrakhan Kremlin is a remarkable monument of military and engineering art. The Astrakhan Kremlin is a historical and architectural complex, which is an integral ensemble of monuments of defense architecture, cult and civil architecture.

The Astrakhan Kremlin is bounded up with significant historical events in Russia:

  • In 1556, the Astrakhan Khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible, who had a new fortress built on a steep hill supervising the Volga.
  • In 1614 inhabitants of Astrakhan took by storm the Kremlin and expelled Marina Mnishek.
  • For seventeen months in 1670-1671 Astrakhan was held by Stenka Razin and his Cossacks.
  • The city rebelled against the tsar once again in 1705, when it was held by the Cossacks under Kondraty Bulavin.
  • In 1942, during the World War II Astrakhan stood the barricade and the Astrakhan Kremlin played, again, a role of the main defense of the Astrakhan City which has not been occupied.

The Astrakhan Kremlin is an obvious example of military engineering art of XVI century. The walls and the towers of the Astrakhan Kremlin are crowned with two-horned merlons so-called «swallow tail». For the first time this kind of merlons appeared on the Moscow Kremlin’s walls and towers and since then it is an integral part of awesome majority of Russian fortresses. So the Astrakhan Kremlin completely corresponds to the Criterion as «an outstanding example of a type of building», example of the Russian defense construction of XVI century in the Russian State.



  • Bounded up: Closely connected or involved.
  • Cossacks: Members of ethnic and cultural self-governing, semi-military communities predominantly located in Southern Russia and in South-Eastern Ukraine.
  • Crowned: If an event or achievement crowns something, it is the best or most successful part of it.
  • Merlons: It’s the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.


Choose your favorite building in Mexico and describe it as detailed as you can.


  • Which buildings were used for defense in Mexico?

Session 2

Welcome to this activity created by Junior Advisor Mr. Alejandro Castañeda from Reforma Branch. Take note of all the pink words, read the text, watch the video and answer the question in the comment section below.

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